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It is an alopecia of autoimmune base, characterized by outbreaks of localized (circumscribed) or generalized (diffuse) hair loss.
It can occur at any time of life, in men and women, although it predominates in childhood and adolescence. It affects males more frequently.
Its etiology is multifactorial, by intervening on a genetic basis autoimmune and psychic mechanisms.
Pathogenesis: An autoimmune phenomenon (noxa) causes telogenic induction, with subsequent arrest at the beginning of the anagen phase of the hair follicles of a certain area.
Clinical Manifestations: There are several clinical forms. The plate form is the most frequent.
The patients present one or several oval or round alopecic plaques, 2-5 cm in diameter, located on the scalp. They can also occur in the beard, eyebrows and other areas of the body.
Inside the plates the skin retains the follicular orifices, which are empty.
It is characteristic to observe on the edge of the plates the presence of short hair in the form of inverted signs of admiration, thin in the proximal zone and wide in the distal zone (= peládicos hair). Its presence indicates disease activity and progression of alopecia.
Other manifestations are the affectation in the area of frontal capillary, parietal and occipital implantation.
Alopecia Areata Total is called when all the hair of the head falls and Alopecia Areata Universal when the hair and hair of the whole body falls.
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